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دانلود رایگان Second Culture Teaching and Learning: An Introduction آموزش و یادگیری فرهنگ دوم

دانلود رایگان Second Culture Teaching and Learning: An Introduction لطفا جهت اطلاع از سایر محصولات این فروشگاه به بخش "لیست محصولات" در ابتدای صفحه یا به بخش "دسته بندی محصولات" در منوی سمت راست مراجعه نمائید.
از بازدیدکنندگان و خریداران بزرگوار تقاضا داریم به خاطر رعایت حقوق معنوی تهیه کنندگان مطالب، به جای ارسال فایلها به دوستان و آشنایان، آدرس سایت فروشگاه یا لینک محصولات را به آنان ارسال کنند.
چنانچه به خلاصه مباحث از مقالات، فصلها یا کل کتابهای مربوط به دروس زبان انگلیسی در تمامی سطوح تحصیلی از مدرسه تا دکترا نیاز دارید، کافی است با ایمیل یا تلفن مدیر فروشگاه تماس حاصل کرده و درخواست خود را مطرح بفرمایید تا در اولین فرصت جهت تهیۀ آن اقدام شود. ایمیل: mobashshernia@yahoo.com شماره تماس: 09357358155
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Contents

List of Tables ........................................................................................... 13

Foreword ............................................................................................... 15

1. Introduction ....................................................................................... 21
1.1 Learning a Modern Culture ..................................................... 21
1.1.1 It Goes Without Saying ............................................... 21
1.1.2 What the Natural Conceals .......................................... 24
1.1.3 Distorting Lenses ...................................................... 26
1.2 Languages and Cultures in a Non-Natural Context ................. 29
1.2.1 A Complex Mediation Field ....................................... 29
1.2.2 An Integrative Discipline ........................................... 30
1.2.3 Multilingual and Multicultural Situations ................... 33
1.2.4 What Construction Procedures? .................................. 35
1.2.5 A Gateway to Culture .................................................. 38
1.3 The Tables ............................................................................... 42
1.3.1 The Translinguistic Scale ........................................... 42
1.3.2 Observable Places ....................................................... 43
1.3.3 Communities of Meaning ........................................... 46
1.3.4 Elementary Dichotomies ............................................ 47

2. Languages – Cultures – Globalization ............................................. 51
2.1 A Conceptual Ambiguity ........................................................ 51
2.2 The Territory of Culture .......................................................... 54
2.3 The Noble and the Trivial ........................................................ 57
2.4 Rooting and Memberships ....................................................... 59
2.5 Cultural Mixes and Identities .................................................. 62
2.6 Lingua Franca – Cultura Franca .............................................. 64
2.7 Languages Other than English ................................................ 67

3. Mother Culture – Foreign Culture .................................................... 69
3.1 A Unique Process ................................................................... 69
3.2 The Infinitely Small ................................................................. 70
3.3 Perception, Appreciation, Action ............................................. 72
3.4 Unavoidable Experiences ....................................................... 75
3.4.1 Benchmarks and Universals ....................................... 75
3.4.2 Space ........................................................................... 76
3.4.3 Time ........................................................................... 77
3.5 Places of Inculcation ............................................................... 79
3.5.1 When? What? with Whom? and How? ....................... 79
3.5.2 Knowledge Deemed Fundamental .............................. 81
3.5.3 The Real Curriculum of Individuals ........................... 83
3.6 The Second Occupant of the Land ......................................... 86
3.7 The Illusive Finishing Line ..................................................... 88

4. Words and Ways of Saying Things .................................................... 93
4.1 The Lexicon ............................................................................. 93
4.1.1 Dissymmetrical Inventories ......................................... 93
4.1.2 Identity Traces ............................................................ 94
4.1.3 The Linguistic and the Extra-Linguistic ..................... 97
4.1.4 Denotation and Connotation ....................................... 98
4.1.5 Nuances and Values .................................................. 101
4.1.6 Eat Your Soup! .......................................................... 103
4.1.7 The Cultural Markers ............................................... 105
4.1.8 The Troublemakers .................................................... 107
4.1.9 Involuntary Alliances ............................................... 110
4.1.10 The Filament of Life Experience .............................. 112
4.1.11 The Specialized Term ............................................... 113
4.1.12 Solidarities and Series ............................................... 115
4.1.13 Norm and Variations .................................................. 118
4.1.14 Discomfort and Collective Anxiety .......................... 123
4.1.15 Units of Social Functioning ..................................... 126
4.1.16 Firewalls .................................................................... 131
4.1.17 The Word and the Soundscape .................................. 133
4.2 Frozenness ............................................................................ 136
4.2.1 Combinatorics ........................................................... 136
4.2.2 Pre-Constructed Sequences ...................................... 139
4.2.2.1 Idiomatic Expressions ............................... 142
4.2.2.2 Collocations .............................................. 147
4.2.2.3 Discursive Routines .................................. 152
4.3 Defrosting ............................................................................. 158

5. Discourse and Interaction .............................................................. 163
5.1 Transphrastic Organization ................................................... 163
5.1.1 Text – Discourse ....................................................... 163
5.1.2 Cotext – Context ....................................................... 165
5.1.3 Cohesion – Coherence .............................................. 166
5.1.4 Fluency and Discursive Realization ......................... 169
5.2 Social Space: Space of Tension ............................................. 172
5.3 Discourse and Ideology ......................................................... 175
5.4 Discourse Genres .................................................................. 177
5.5 Discursive Memories ............................................................ 183
5.6 The Media ............................................................................ 184
5.6.1 The Event ................................................................. 184
5.6.2 Sorting Operation ...................................................... 187
5.6.3 The Expectations of the Moment ............................. 191
5.7 Literature ............................................................................... 193
5.7.1 Artistic and Linguistic Models ................................. 193
5.7.2 Essential Figures and Texts ...................................... 196
5.7.3 Literary Options for L2 ............................................. 199
5.8 Interactional Stories .............................................................. 202
5.8.1 Participating in Social Practices ............................... 202
5.8.2 Acting on Others ....................................................... 204
5.8.3 The Implicit .............................................................. 206
5.8.4 Allusions and Citations ............................................ 208
5.8.5 That’s So Funny! ...................................................... 212
5.9 Interactional Rules ................................................................ 215
5.9.1 Cooperation – Competition ...................................... 215
5.9.2 Speech Acts – Social Usages ..................................... 218
5.9.3 The Most Appropriate Formulation ........................... 219
5.9.4 Prefabricated Scripts ................................................ 221
5.9.5 Framing Sequences ................................................... 227
5.9.6 The Common Mental Context ................................... 228
5.9.7 Exploring the Customary .......................................... 230
5.10 The Non-Verbal and the Paraverbal ....................................... 232
5.10.1 The Speaking Body .................................................. 232
5.10.2 Socially Organized Silence ....................................... 236
5.11 Modalities of Propriety .......................................................... 239
5.11.1 Mutual Contentment ................................................. 239
5.11.2 Forms of Address ..................................................... 241
5.11.3 The Ritual Equilibrium ............................................. 244
5.11.4 Semantically Empty Language .................................. 248
5.11.5 Status Politeness – Instantaneous Politeness ............ 251
5.11.6 Culturally Situated Hospitality .................................. 253

6. Alterity and Imagination ................................................................. 257
6.1 Representations ...................................................................... 257
6.2 The Intelligence of Exchanges .............................................. 259
6.3 The Almighty Image .............................................................. 261
6.4 Categorization Patterns .......................................................... 263
6.5 Auto-Stereotypes and Hetero-Stereotypes ............................ 266
6.6 “Such an Ugly Language! .................................................... 270
6.7 Cultural Attraction ................................................................. 273
6.8 Ethnocentrism ........................................................................ 275
6.9 Some Languages are More Foreign than Others ................... 278

7. Culture: Pedagogical Challenges ................................................... 283
7.1 The Classroom ....................................................................... 283
7.1.1 A Strange Meeting Indeed! ....................................... 283
7.1.2 Context Switching ..................................................... 284
7.1.3 The Real, the Simulated and the Fake ...................... 287
7.1.4 The Hyper-Availability of Information ..................... 289
7.2 The Instructor ........................................................................ 292
7.2.1 A Cultural Intermediary ........................................... 292
7.2.2 A Particular Sociological Profile ............................... 293
7.2.3 Native or Non-Native? ............................................. 294
7.2.4 Traditions – Originality ............................................. 298
7.3 The Textbook ......................................................................... 299
7.3.1 Linguistic Content – Cultural Content ..................... 299
7.3.2 Glamorous View – Conflictual View ........................ 303
7.3.3 An Intermediary World ............................................. 304
7.3.4 The Authentic and the Fabricated ............................. 307
7.4 The Learner .......................................................................... 311
7.4.1 Motivation ................................................................ 311
7.4.1.1 External and Internal Factors ..................... 311
7.4.1.2 Towards the Ideal Self ............................... 312
7.4.2 Baggage and Trajectories .......................................... 314
7.4.3 On the Subject of Error ............................................ 316
7.5 Making Progress ................................................................... 319
7.6 Capacities .............................................................................. 321
7.6.1 Communicative Competence ................................... 321
7.6.2 Skills and Learning Areas ........................................ 322
7.6.3 The Cultural Component and the CEFR .................. 324
7.6.4 Adjustment Aptitudes ............................................... 326
7.6.5 Understanding Global Times .................................... 327
7.6.6 Cultural Sensitivity ................................................... 329
7.6.7 Cultural Descriptors ................................................. 332
7.7 The Strategies ....................................................................... 332
7.7.1 Experiences and the Whole ...................................... 332
7.7.2 A Reunion With Oneself .......................................... 333
7.7.3 Learning to Decenter ................................................. 334
7.7.4 Looking at the World Through Foreign Eyes ............ 337
7.7.5 Intercomprehension .................................................. 338
7.7.6 Intense Encounters .................................................... 340
7.7.7 Stimulating Social Conscience .................................. 341
7.7.8 Panic Attacks ............................................................. 342
7.7.9 Masking Methods ...................................................... 344
7.7.10 The Real in the Absence of the Real ........................ 346
7.7.11 Translation ................................................................ 349
7.7.11.1 Translating with the Aim of Learning ...... 349
7.7.11.2 Learning to Translate ................................ 351
7.7.11.3 Brioche and Raisins ................................... 354
7.7.11.4 The referents .............................................. 356
7.7.12 Towards Authentic Social Acts .................................. 358
7.7.12.1 Real Life Tasks .......................................... 358
7.7.12.2 From Communication to Co-Action ......... 361
7.7.12.3 Language and Finality ............................... 364
7.7.12.4 Professional Reality .................................. 366
7.7.12.5 The Academic Environment ...................... 369
7.7.12.6 School Time Experienced in a Foreign Language .............. 374
7.7.12.7 Urban space ............................................. 375

Afterword ............................................................................................ 381

Index .................................................................................................. 395

References .......................................................................................... 403


Second Culture Teaching


Learning


An Introduction


آموزش


یادگیری


فرهنگ دوم


مقاله


پاورپوینت


فایل فلش


کارآموزی


گزارش تخصصی


اقدام پژوهی


درس پژوهی


جزوه


خلاصه


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